27Oct, 2019

Isolated LH Deficiency

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-Summary: LH is not necessary for the differentiation of the genitals in the male sense. In fact, in our species, HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) produced by the placenta, very homologous to LH, will allow the masculinization of the genital organs before birth by acting on the same LHR receptor. However, after birth, LH is essential for testicular maturation, especially for the proliferation and maturation of Leydig cells, which will acquire the ability to secrete testosterone, allowing pubertal virilization and activation of spermatogenesis. -Development: About 15% of couples are infertile and […]
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27Oct, 2019

Importance of OH-progesterone

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-Summary: 17-hydroxy-progesterone (17α-OH-P) is a steroid produced in the adrenal glands and gonads (testicles or ovaries). It is a natural progestogen, and is increased during the third trimester of pregnancy mainly due to fetal adrenal production. As a hormone, 17OHP also interacts with progesterone receptors. -Development: Normal levels in children are 3-90 ng/dl, in men: 139 ng/dL (< 4.17 nmol/L) and in women: it depends on the stage of the ovarian cycle: Follicular phase: 0.2 – 2.6 ng/ml Luteal phase: 0.35 – 4.0 ng/dL Postmenopause: 0.1-1.2 ng/ml Congenital adrenal hyperplasia […]
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27Oct, 2019

Estradiol and Male Reproductive Function

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-Summary: Traditionally, testosterone and estrogen have been considered male and female sex hormones, respectively. However, estradiol, the predominant form of estrogen, also plays a role in male sexual function. Estradiol in men is essential for libido modulation, erectile function, and spermatogenesis. -Development: Estrogen receptors, as well as aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone into estrogen, are abundant in the brain, penis and testicles, organs important for sexual function. In the brain, estradiol synthesis increases in areas related to sexual arousal. In addition, in the penis, estrogen receptors are found throughout […]
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13Jul, 2019

Haemospermia or Hematospermia

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Haemospermia or Hematospermia -Summary: Hematospermia or haemospermia is a very disturbing symptom among men, but can be managed in many cases without further complications. Because it is not a habitual demand in consultation, it requires epidemiological knowledge and an adequate clinical judgment in order to be able to approach each case correctly and reassure our patients. -Introduction: Hematospermia or haemospermia is defined as the presence of blood in the semen or sperm. The most frequent cases are in men between 30 and 40 years old. It is recurrent: when it […]
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13Jul, 2019

Delayed Puberty

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-Summary: Delayed Puberty is the absence of secondary sexual characteristics, of 2 standard deviations from the average age of onset of normal puberty in the population and sex to which the individual belongs. In practical and temporal terms, for men it is at the age of 14, when the testicular volume is less than 4 ml and for women it is at the age of 13, when there is still no presence of telarquia (start of the mammary button). -Introduction: Puberty is the period in which sexual maturation is completed […]
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18May, 2019

Abdominal Fat and Sexual Dysfunction

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-Introduction Overweight and obesity are associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance and both have an effect on sexual function. However, the presence of abdominal obesity correlates more strongly with cardiovascular risk factors than a high body mass index (BMI). Therefore, waist circumference measurement is recommended in order to identify the corresponding body weight component of the metabolic syndrome and more than 50% of obese people have a low free testosterone. Some male patients may develop multiple metabolic risk factors when the waist circumference is only increased to a negligible […]
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27Apr, 2019

The Receptor of Progesterone

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-Definition: The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3, is a protein found inside cells. It is activated by the steroid hormone progesterone. In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11 has two isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, which differ in their molecular weight, PR-B is the positive regulator of the effects of progesterone, while PR-A serves to antagonize the effects of PR-B. Progesterone is necessary to induce progesterone receptors. When there is no binding hormone, the carboxyl terminal inhibits transcription. Binding to a hormone […]
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27Apr, 2019

Antiandrogens and their Importance

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-Definition: An antiandrogen or androgenic antagonist is a group of drugs that exert an antagonistic action or hormonal suppression capable of preventing or inhibiting the biological effects of androgens or male sex hormones on the normal responses of body tissues to these hormones. Antiandrogens normally act by blocking androgen receptors, competing with binding sites on the surface of cells, nullifying the function of androgens, except in those cases that inhibit the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, which is more potent than dihydrotestosterone and therefore are partially antiandrogenics. -Various Uses: Antiandrogens […]
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27Mar, 2019

Chronic Pelvic Pain in Men

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-Definition As in the case of women, a significant percentage of men suffer during their lifetime from pelvic pain that is not precisely localised. When the pain is present for a period longer than 3 months, it is called chronic pelvic pain. It is located in the pelvis, perineum or genitals. There may also be pain in the suprapubic area, also in the penis or testicles. There may also be urinary signs such as dysuria (discomfort in urination) and pain when ejaculating, decreased jet and urinary urgency and even sexual […]
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1Mar, 2019

Frequently Asked Questions about Andropause

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-Definition The term Andropause is used to parallel the feminine than of menopause. These two entities are different in their physiology, evolution, prognosis and clinical effects. It should be noted that the androgenic deficit is gradual, occurs in 25 to 35% of men and there is only a partial androgen deficiency, not significantly affecting their ability to fertilize in certain cases, which is completely opposite to the stage of menopause. The initiation of andropause is unpredictable and its manifestations are subtle and diverse. There are two synonymous terms that can […]
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