Adolescent Sexuality

– Summary:

Sexual maturation forces the adolescent to critically adapt to her new position regarding sexuality. The physiological changes that occur at this time make a new psychological adjustment of her sexual needs.

– Discussion:

Psychosexual development is determined by cultural factors to such an extent that we can only speak of the development of mankind in a given culture.
The mind plays a fundamental role in our way of living and feeling our sexuality.
Our way of perceiving beauty, our personality, our ideas of what is right or wrong in terms of sex and the temperament of each person are fundamental and will go hand in hand with psychosexual development.
Within this, the possibility of understanding individuals of the opposite sex and adapting to new types of bonds they must cope.
This is how friendship between members of both sexes constitutes an essential factor in the adaptation to which we refer.
The lack of this possibility manifests itself as an important step on the way to heterosexuality.
Heterosexuality means that the other sex is perceived and considered with greater interest and becomes the object of the adolescent’s libido, indicating that they have begun to move through an adult level, which must be consolidated.
Heterosexual development presupposes that the following stages have been reached:
-The acceptance of the sexual role that corresponds to the sex to which it belongs and the possibility of fulfilling it satisfactorily.
-Knowledge of everything related to reproduction and the development of healthy sexual attitudes that ensure sexual health and a good relationship with the other sex.
-Possession of guidelines and ideals that allow giving transcendence to sexuality, projecting it beyond the physical.
-Considering the other sex attractive, to such an extent that it allows them to love and be loved.
-The attitude to understand the other sex, and admit it in terms of equality in any situation or attitude that is considered.

The sexual interest that arises at this time is directly related to the degree of sexual maturity reached.
This is how those individuals who have reached a degree of maturation at earlier ages have an early sexual interest in those of the opposite sex and are capable of establishing stable relationships at earlier ages.
Statistics show that this early interest sex results in them being 20% ​​more active in their sexual lifestyle, which Kinsey had already shown.
It is important to note that having heterosexual interests does not necessarily mean the existence of coital relationships, but rather the gradual establishment of adult bonds with the other sex.
The increase in sexual energy in adolescence and its need to be discharged raises the problem of the operational form used by adolescents to find a way out of the situation that causes their sexual maturity.
In our culture, biological needs are generally opposed to social norms, so the attitude that the adolescent will take for this purpose will be in relation to his personality and the education he has received.
Either way, the conscious solution offers you four possibilities:
– Heterosexual intercourse.
– Homoerotic behavior.
– Masturbation
– Sublimation.

There is also a non-conscious solution that we can call dream orgasm. Faced with this form of attitude that the adolescent has to solve the channeling of her sexual energy, two attitudes have been constituted.
In one of them are those who argue that adolescent intercourse should not only be accepted and allowed, but also encouraged.
This position is based on the conception of sex-pleasure, and from this point of view the coital relationship should be exercised whenever the adolescent considers it necessary.
As an inescapable basic condition, it is required that both components of the couple agree and that the appropriate contraceptive means be used to avoid pregnancy.
Angry voices have been raised against anti-pleasure culture, as our culture has been defined as non-accepting of pornography and juvenile intercourse.
As an alleged defense of the rights of the adolescent as a person who loves and whom society should help and not repress, they propose that it be accepted.
Some also recommend carrying out campaigns that educate young people in terms of contraceptive methods, which should be easily accessible.
With a completely different vision, those who are grouped on the opposite side say they are not based only on sex-pleasure, but also contemplate the consequences that promoting sexual intercourse can have.
It is known that one of the characteristics of adolescence is immature psychoemotional toughness.
This immaturity is what makes the adolescent unable to be responsible.
Of course, it is understood that when we speak of adolescence we are not referring to ages or physical maturity, but to individuals who, lacking psycho-emotional maturity, are not yet adults.
A 17-year-old can be an adult just as a 22-year-old can still be a teenager. Adolescence is measured in psychological terms.
The same immaturity that we are referring to means that the motivations that lead the adolescent to have intercourse do not have the significance that they have for the adult, and often serve as an escape route to other situations.
In this way distorting the purpose of fullness of sexuality that is assigned to intercourse.
In this regard, Masters and Johnson said: adolescent sexual activity can take very different directions.
Sorenson identifies several reasons why an adolescent boy or girl may choose to be sexually active: for physical pleasure, as a means of communication, as an indication of personal maturation.
Also as a way to catch up with peers, as a challenge to parents and society , as a reward or punishment, as an escape from loneliness or as an escape from other tensions.
As a general rule, the member of the couple who is most exposed to traumatic situations is the woman, since there is the possibility of pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases that compromise her fertility.
Faced with this situation, the absence of adequate contraceptive campaigns is usually argued, which, in some way, would contribute to reducing the considerable number of adolescent mothers that it is possible to observe in our days.
However, those who work with adolescents refer to the same conclusions: regardless of the greater or lesser emphasis placed on awareness campaigns about the complication and importance of contraceptive methods, adolescents do not use them or do so improperly.
As a general rule, the adolescent male does not worry about contraceptive methods and leaves the care to the good will of his partner.
However, even those adolescents who have easy access to contraceptives do not always use them regularly and those who have become pregnant, however, the practice of the morning after pill is currently very popular.
It has also been proven that early motherhood is closely related to the number of abortions performed at this time of life, taking into account that motherhood outside of marriage is still poorly accepted.
This documented relationship in almost all countries would justify what Viktor Frank said: “Sexual treatment between young people, as mature beings sexually but not yet psychosexually mature, should be considered with caution.
The foregoing would seem to show that promoting adolescent intercourse does not provide anything positive to the individual and often exposes him to consequences that will later weigh negatively on him.
Affirming this does not presuppose repressing, much less adopting a moralistic attitude, good sexual education will allow them to acquire appropriate and responsible attitudes and experiences.
The coital relationship, which belongs to him as a human right, but which will be postponed for a suitable moment: that is, when he becomes an adult and is in a position to decide freely and responsibly.

– Conclusions:

Our own sexual identity and sexual orientation will depend to a large extent on the way we see ourselves and understand ourselves psychologically in relation to sexuality.
The period of adolescence is a time of rapid changes, the physical is only a part of this process because adolescents face a wide range of psychosocial requirements:
– Independence from parents, consolidation of the necessary qualities to relate to peers of the same age, promotion of intellectual abilities and acquisition of social and individual responsibility.
– Masturbation:
Masturbation is called the stimulation of the genital organs in order to obtain pleasure.
This autoerotic form of sexual satisfaction is often accidentally discovered on genital examinations.
In other cases, older children initiate younger ones as if this
constitute a new playful activity.
Although masturbation exists from very early ages, the peak of this activity occurs in adolescence.
The exercise of it provides sexual satisfaction and release of tension, according to Kinsey, at the end of adolescence the possibility of an adequate heterosexual adaptation, or in some homosexual cases, decreases the frequency of masturbation.
The negative physical and psychological effects it has have been insisted on, which constitutes a form of covert social repression of it.
It is true that in mental patients usually may be observed convulsive masturbation, but that is not the cause of the disease but a symptom of it.
What is often seen is that the social disapproval and punishment associated with this practice lead to feelings of guilt and shame.
This would not be so serious if it were not for the fact that these feelings are then projected to all sexual activity outside the individual, going with it the possibility of a sexual adjustment in the adult.
André Alsteens believes that it is currently unanimously accepted that adolescent masturbation is a passing appearance of masturbatory behaviors during the growth period, as a normal process, but it cannot, however, be identified as necessary.
It only means that adolescent masturbation, considered from the point of view of evolutionary psychology, is widely understandable from psychophysical situations typical of this age.
The adolescent’s masturbatory activity appears as an effective resource for discharging the tension caused by sexual energy.
The same situation occurs in childhood although with a different meaning and can be repeated in adolescence as a result of the appearance of new emotional tendencies.
But it would be false to think that this is the main factor in the appearance of adolescent masturbation. But we can see it as a condition, among others, of its problematic overcoming.
Maturbation at this age is at the service of the new sexual impulses that characterize genitality, that is, adult sexuality that, although not fully developed, It begins to take shape at this time.
This is how the adolescent is no longer satisfied with the old childhood objects where he deposits his libido, but it is also true that he has difficulties relating to the new objects.
In this way, in this transition between the infantile objects that decrease, to give up and the adult objects that he does not know how to obtain.
Masturbation becomes the most typical cultural resource of adolescent sexual life and constitutes an important element in the evolutionary process of the development of sexuality.
Balint believes that although masturbation can be considered an autoerotic attitude, in adolescence it is only in its execution, since in his fantasies real-life objects appear towards which the adolescent directs his sexual desire.
Thus, masturbation at this age is also transforms it into a medium that allows the adolescent to pass to auto-eroticism, with his consequent fixation on infantile objects, sexuality and love, which gives him the opportunity to relate to other objects, giving an adult sense to his sexual life.
-Homoerotic Behavior:
Homoerotic behavior in the adolescent period does not actually constitute true homosexuality.
Like the behaviors described above, its purpose is to eliminate sexual tension with the consequent pleasurable satisfaction that this means.
It is a form of object relationship that some individuals resort to and that is left aside when the adolescent makes his sexual adjustment.
It is more frequent however, they are interned in institutes, that houses only there are individuals of the same sex, which does not allow bonding with the other sex, are the most likely to develop this operative modality of sexuality at this time.
These homoerotic games are performed by both men and women. As it is easy to suppose, its highest frequency is reached in the beginning of adolescence and decreases at the end of it.
– Sublimation:
In some adolescents, sexual tension can be channeled through socially accepted behaviors, such as cultural activities, sports, etc.
This allows some of this sexual tension to be removed, giving individuals the opportunity to use this operational resource, as the only form of instrumentation in the channeling of sexual need.
Freud said: The sexual drive places extraordinarily large amounts of force at the disposal of cultural work, by virtue of the singularly marked particularity in said drive of being able to displace its end without losing, in essence, intensity.
This ability to replace the original sexual goal by another end, which is no longer sexual but is psychically related, then, sublimation is a defense mechanism but it is also a normal function of the ego.
It is then said that sexual energy is sublimated when it is diverted towards ends that are not sexual and is directed towards activities that are socially valued.
-Dream Orgasm:
In cases where the adolescent, for whatever reason, does not use some of the conscious resources that we have seen, the accumulated energy will also be discharged.
When the sexual energy accumulates enough to become unpleasant and endanger the state of homeostasis, if they do not consciously seek a way out, to orgasm itself.
Then they will use a non-conscious mechanism that will allow them to discharge that tension that holds them back and is unbearable.
During sleep, this particular state of sexual tension will motivate dream images that will lead both the man and the woman to orgasm, with the following elimination of the accumulated sexual tension.
We could call this way that the organism has of resolving the afore mentioned situation an oneiric orgasm.
It becomes more easily detectable in men since it is accompanied by the elimination of semen, which is known as nocturnal pollution.

References:
– Sexual Human Response Ishi Press International William Masters and Virginnia Johnson.
– The Masturbation in adolescents, by Andre Alsteens

Adolescentes y educación sexual en la era de Netflix - La Tercera
Keywords:
adolescence and sex, heterosexuality and adolescence, homosexuality and adolescence, masturbation and adolescence, adolescence and nocturnal emission, adolescence and oneiric orgasm, adolescence and couple, adolescence and sexual maturation, adolescence and autoeroticism, adolescence and sublimation, childhood and masturbation.

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