Vitamin D plays an important role during sperm maturation, in sperm DNA protection, as well as in sperm motility and acrosome reaction.
Additionally, vitamin D is indirectly involved in both erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation, helping to control associated risk factors, both vascular and psychological, such as stress, depression, and anxiety.
Vitamin D is obtained mainly from ultraviolet irradiation of dehydrocholesterol on the skin to form cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and minimally by the diet, unless foods supplemented with vitamin D are consumed, in some countries ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) of plant origin is used, especially mushrooms.
The active form is calcitriol, which is cholecalciferol, after its synthesis in the skin through the transformation of dehydrocholesterol in the presence of light and after experiencing 2 hydroxilations in liver and kidneys.
Natural sources are foods rich in vitamin D3, especially blue fish, egg yolk and dairy products.
It is estimated that between 40 and 50% of people in Spain have a deficit, and their need increases with age, among the factors that reduce exposure to ultraviolet rays from solar radiation.
Consequently, it is often necessary to supplement with vitamin D3, in amounts between 1000-2000 IU per day, considering optimal values between 30- 60mg/dl
Therefore the synthesis of vitamin D in the skin, determined by the season, geographical latitude, weather, smoke, pollution and sunscreens.
The main action of vitamin D is to increase the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the intestine.
With parathormone and calcitonin constitute the group of calciotropic hormones.
PTH decreases renal tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, conditioning loss of phosphorus in the urine and inducing the formation of calcitriol which will increase intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus.
They have an important role in calcium homeostasis and a direct action on bone tissue.
Vitamin D and calcium are associated with skeletal problems such as rickets, osteomalacia, osteopenia, and osteoporosis.
In bone, vitamin D directly stimulates, through its binding to the VDR receptor, the differentiation of osteoblasts and the production of bone calcium-binding proteins, such as osteocalcin and osteopontin.
However, receptors for vitamin D (VDR) have been detected in almost all human tissues, and its ability to regulate the expression of numerous genes has been discovered, thus it is really, a hormone that has a relevant role in general physiology.
Most tissues and cells, normal or neoplastic, such as muscle, heart, blood vessels, brain, breast, colon, prostate, pancreas, skin and immune system among others, possess VDR.
Numerous studies have been carried out over the years to highlight these extraosseous actions, the most relevant being those that take place in muscle, cancer, glucose metabolism and the immune system.
Muscle weakness associated with hypovitaminosis D, if it exceeds a certain limit, can affect functional capacity and mobility, with a greater risk of falling and, therefore, of fracture.
It is clear that vitamin D has an implication on general health, and that not only bone benefits from it.
It has importance in reproduction, the neurological system, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, promoting the production of insulin, obesity, decreasing insulin resistance.
In the immune system, regulating the differentiation of T and D lymphocytes and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin il-6.
It regulates the metabolism and signaling of prostaglandins, thus decreasing the promotion of carcinogenesis mediated by them.
This effect on the synthesis of prostaglandins also results in a suppression of tumor angiogenesis, and vitamin D has been linked to various types of cancer.
There is a close relationship between vitamin D and calcium, a molecule that also has a wide involvement in cell functions.
Due to its multiple actions, this vitamin has become not only a calciotropic hormone, and like the thyroid, it is a multisystemic hormone and may even participate in the regulation of phosphorus and magnesium.
-Relationship between vitamin D and male reproductive and sexual health.M.Morales VelásquezW.D.Cardona Maya.Clinical and Research in Gynecology and Obstetrics.23 September 2020.
Vitamin D, a determinant of bone and extra-bone health; importance of its supplementation in milk and milk products.Cristina Navarro Valverde and José Manuel Quesada Gómez.Nutr Hosp. 2015;31(Suppl. 2):18-25
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