Were first described in 2008 by Professor I. Morishita of Kyoto University and his team. His scientific work described how modified all alpha-tocopherol acetate racemic stimulates receptor AR in some mammalian species.
What about Xenoandrogens?: are a group of artificially created compounds with properties similar to the human steroid hormone testosterone and its derivatives. Currently known xenoandrogens include modified tocopherols and tocotrienols, modified nicotinamides and tributyltin, triphenyltin, and toxic methylestestosterone.
-Use to increase yield:
They were not commercially available until the second half of 2011, but some professional athletes used them from the beginning of 2010. The first mention of the use of xenohormones by the best athletes in the official media was about the Russian swimming team that uses them in the 2011 World Cup.
But currently, there are substances like danabol (similar to dianabol), a substance used in professional sports, and it can also be found on the shelves of nutrition supplement stores.
The official position of WADA-AMA, the international doping control body, is still under discussion and there is a discussion on this issue in the federations most affected by this new form of doping: swimming, various martial arts and weightlifting. xenoandrogens may one day be banned from these sports.
One of the reasons for this approach is that most xenoandrogens are so similar to anabolic steroids. It becomes more difficult to distinguish between the two and several anti-doping agencies that reported cases in which «steroids» have been seized and then identified as xenoandrogens.
For decades we have known that certain proteins present in soybeans and other vegetables (as well as in some synthetic products such as plastic bottles) have effects similar to the hormone estrogen. Phytoestrogens (estrogen-like compounds present in plants) or xenoestrogens (estrogen-like compounds «from any source») can cause male infertility and many other estrogenic effects.
But until recently, we didn’t know of any natural xenoandrogen, or testosterone-like substance found in nature. Natural xenoandrogens may well not exist, however, there are artificial xenoandrogens produced by small alterations in naturally occurring tocopherols and tocotrienols. Such modified tocopherols and tocotrienols are almost indistinguishable from existing anabolic steroids. Being more similar to vitamin E, modified tocopherols are obviously legal.
At the 2011 swimming championship in Shanghai, the Russian team doctor has been caught with what looked a lot like anabolic steroids. The vials have been tested but no hormones have been found. But later, the anti-doping committee realized that the Russians had something completely new and legal: modified tocopherols from European producers.
The team won 3rd place in Shanghai, which means that the future of doping has not yet been seen … Many people asked me about the meaning of «modifications» of tocopherol, tocotrienol and nicotinamide, substances used in the production of xenoandrogens that are used as performance-enhancing drugs.
Many natural substances can exist in different forms that will have a different impact on the human body. It should be noted that many of these substances are actually very complicated molecules. They can occur naturally in various structural variations or they can be artificially modified.
Professor William Steiger and his team published a study that demonstrated that the main mechanism by which modified tocopherols/tocopherols act is their antiglucocorticoid activity mediated by the displacement of glucocorticoids from their receptors, and increases in creatin phosphokinase activity in muscles and insulin-like growth factor (IGF). These mechanisms may play a greater role in anabolic-antiatabolic activities than previously thought.
Modified tocopherols, tocotrienols and nicotinamides are currently recognisable as 254 different modifications, originally designed by a computer algorithm. About 19% of the modifications have been tested in laboratories with mammals and 12 xenoandrogens are currently produced by commercial companies in Europe as performance-enhancing products. The full list was published in the European Journal of Endocrinology in February 2012.
Research has shown that many xenoandrogens can potentially have harmful effects on animals and humans. Studies have indicated that male reproductive disorders may arise from AR signaling interrupted by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that act as xenoandrogens.
The subsequent study found that in European groups the activities of receptors induced by xenobiotic substances (xenoandrogenic substances) correlated with DNA damage, as measured by sperm DNA damage. DNA damage has a very close relationship with many diseases, including cancer.
Harmful effects were also seen in invertebrates such as mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms. TPT and TBT interfere with such metabolic pathways as testosterone sulfation, testosterone esterification, and 5-alpha-reductase activity. There is a different sensitivity of these metabolic pathways to androgenic compounds along with phylogenetic differences in androgen metabolism.